西兰花在用几种方法烹饪之前

调查5种方法准备西兰花-西兰花的科学

如何准备西兰花不仅会影响它的味道. 它还会影响颜色、质地等. 你是做短的还是长的,热的还是干的? 最终的结果可能会非常不同! 利用科学,十大网赌排行榜比较了5种不同的西兰花制作方法.

蔬菜的味道、质地和颜色是如此多样化. 这使得他们的准备工作令人兴奋,但有时也具有挑战性. 每种蔬菜都有自己最好的烹饪方法. 十大网赌排行榜将以西兰花为例进行演示.

向你介绍:西兰花

十大网赌排行榜先来仔细看看西兰花.

羽衣甘蓝和球芽甘蓝家族

西兰花属于 芸苔属植物oleracea 物种. 各种各样的蔬菜都属于这一类. 除了西兰花,它还包括 羽衣甘蓝卷心菜、球芽甘蓝、花椰菜等等. 像这样, just like 布鲁塞尔豆芽,西兰花中含有大量的硫代葡萄糖苷. These strongly influence flavor – and are also found to have beneficial properties for 健康, 十大网赌排行榜不详细讨论了吗.

椰菜花

结构 & 细胞

西兰花有一个厚厚的绿色的茎,上面有绿色的“花”. The stalk especially contains considerable amounts of cellulose and lignins, 这两种纤维有助于增强西兰花的力量.

西兰花是一种植物. 植物细胞就是这样组成的. A unique feature of plant cells is that they have a strong sturdy cell wall, unlike animal cells. 这给了细胞力量.

此外,植物细胞含有一个“蓄水池”. When this reservoir is full the inside of the cell presses against the cell wall. 这产生了一点压力,这就是十大网赌排行榜所说的膨胀. 然而,当细胞失去水分时,肿胀就消失了. 这会导致树叶枯萎变软.

In broccoli, this is especially important for the flowers and the leaves. These don’t have the additional strength from fibers to help them keep their shape. 当膨胀消失时,它们就会枯萎. 另一方面,茎干没有受到太大的影响. 他们坚固的内部结构会支撑住.

西兰花在用几种方法烹饪之前
五朵花椰菜小花,准备煮熟.

烹饪西兰花时会发生什么?

When you want to prepare, thus heat, broccoli, a few things start to change.

它软化

首先, the heat breaks down some of the complex carbohydrates that make up a big part of the cell walls. 这样一来,膨压就消失了,西兰花开始变软. 很多碳水化合物,比如 果胶,也可能溶解或分开. 这也有助于软化西兰花,让它更容易吃.

西兰花加热的时间越长,就越软. At some point, it will be so soft you can compress it with a light touch of a fork.

但不减少!

西兰花在烹饪过程中不会缩水. It might shrivel a little, but it will remain more or less the size it was at the start. 这与它的叶子亲戚相反 羽衣甘蓝. 这要归功于西兰花的纤维和坚固的结构.

颜色变化-失去绿色

西兰花是绿色的,鲜亮的绿色. 叶绿素分子 都要对此负责. 然而,叶绿素并不是最稳定的分子.

When broccoli is added to a hot pan or boiling 水 you may at first notice it turns even brighter in color. 这并不是因为产生了更多的叶绿素. Instead, it’s because the 叶绿素 that is already there has become more visible.

However, when you continue to heat the broccoli it will again lose that bright green color. 叶绿素分子 will react to become pheophytins, or leach out of the broccoli. This happens even more quickly if you’re cooking the broccoli in an acidic environment.

水果和蔬菜中的天然颜色 不是特别稳定,叶绿素不是唯一的. Boiling red cabbage for too long will also result in the loss of its bright purple/red color.

通讯

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酶的作用

有些反应可以在没有中介的情况下发生. However, other reactions that result in the breakdown of 叶绿素 need a little help. 这就是酶发挥作用的地方.

酶是一种非常特殊的蛋白质. 它们可以催化化学反应. That is, they help these reactions take place, without participating themselves. Various 酶 in broccoli can result in the breakdown of 叶绿素.

In fresh raw broccoli, these 酶 don’t get in touch with the 叶绿素. 但是当西兰花被加热分解后, they can start to catalyze reactions and break down 叶绿素 even faster.

Chlorophyll_a
并且分子

为了保持西兰花的绿色,你可以用它来烹饪 碱性 水. 然而,这会让你的西兰花有金属味 加速维生素C的分解.

颜色变化-变成棕色

鲜艳的绿色是不可取的. 但, 就像你在烤牛排或烤面包一样, 创造一种棕色是一件好事.

叶绿素在这些反应中不起作用. Instead, the brown colors and accompanying smells and flavors are created through the 美拉德反应. This is a reaction that takes place at high temperatures in dry-ish conditions. 像这样, it won’t happen when you boil broccoli in 水, or steam broccoli. 但当你烤的时候, 烧烤,或者炒西兰花.

During the 美拉德反应 sugars and proteins in the broccoli react with each other. 这就导致了棕色分子的形成. 但这不仅仅是颜色的问题. 同时也形成了许多令人满意的风味分子.

风味变化

就像它的亲戚一样 布鲁塞尔豆芽,烹饪会改变西兰花的味道. 这部分是因为西兰花的防御系统被激活了!

十大网赌排行榜现在知道,西兰花细胞含有 . 酶有很多种, and some of these can catalyze reactions that cause the formation of flavor molecules.

西兰花也含有所谓的前体物质. These are molecules that form the starting point for a specific reaction. In whole, healthy broccoli the precursors and 酶 are stored in separate ‘compartments’. 这样,它们就不会相互反应. 然而,加热西兰花时,细胞和隔层会分解. 这导致分子相互发现并发生反应.

准备西兰花

So heat definitely impacts the structure, color and flavor of broccoli. 而是如何将理论知识转化为实践?

For that purpose, we investigated 5 different ways to prepare broccoli:

  1. 没有热处理,也就是生西兰花
  2. 放入烤箱180°C(350°F)烤30分钟
  3. 放入冷水中,煮沸(需要5分钟).),再煮5分钟
  4. 加入沸水中煮5分钟
  5. 放入沸水中煮20分钟
烤花椰菜
在烤箱里烤西兰花

烤西兰花-增加风味!

As expected 烧烤ing in the oven resulted in slightly browned broccoli. 烘箱是干热的,理想的环境 美拉德反应 开始. This also resulted in a different flavor profile than any of the other broccoli tests. 发生的化学反应类型明显不同. In our opinion, this was the most flavorful broccoli, but of course, that’s a very personal opinion.

烤西兰花最后的颜色是深绿色的. Apparently, 叶绿素 can better withstand these conditions or becomes more visible.

但是耗时最长

也就是说,用这种方法煮西兰花确实花了最长的时间.

这是十大网赌排行榜所期望的. 在烤箱中,水是比空气更有效的加热介质. 水可以更有效地给西兰花带来能量. Air on the other hand doesn’t contain as much energy and isn’t as efficient. 比较时也是类似的机制 炸vs. 烘箱.

西兰花有几种烹饪方法
西兰花的五种制作方法
左上角:生(1). 中间:烤一遍(2). 左下:加入冷水中,再煮5分钟(3). 右上方:用沸水(4)煮5分钟. 右下角:用沸水(5)煮20分钟.

添加西兰花冷vs. 热水-轻微差异

Remember how 酶 can play a role in both the breakdown of color as well as flavor development? 酶对热敏非常敏感. 如果它们接触到滚烫的水,它们就会失活. 像这样, we expected that adding broccoli to hot boiling 水 would immediately inactivate 酶, whereas that would happen more slowly when you add broccoli to cold 水 that’s heated up.

Theoretically, that could result in a difference in final color and flavor.

然而,十大网赌排行榜没有注意到这种影响. Both 5-minute broccoli samples still had a bright green color and a very similar texture.

请记住,十大网赌排行榜测试了少量的西兰花. 如果你想煮大量的西兰花, 水煮沸需要更长的时间. 因此,酶的失活需要更长的时间.

煮太久会让西兰花非常非常软……

煮西兰花只要20分钟,西兰花就会变软. 太软了,轻轻一压就会变成糊状. 味道也柔和了很多. And, this broccoli sample is by far the whitest of them all (you can see that best in the stalks). 所以它显然损失最多 叶绿素.

如果你想要清淡的西兰花泥,这是完美的选择. 否则,就不是这样了.

准备西兰花的最好方法

如果你想单独吃西兰花, 作为一个侧, 或者作为一种零食,有一些时间:烧烤是最好的选择. 它能让西兰花更有味道. If you don’t have as much time, give it a quick dip in some boiling 水 – or a microwave(!) -帮助它煮得更快一点.

也就是说. Personal preferences vary, so you might find your best way to make broccoli is different from ours!

来源

钟,我.Oloyede,阿. O.Lignou,年代.瓦格斯塔夫C. 和Methven L. (2018) Taste and flavour perceptions of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, and related compounds. 分子营养 & 食品研究,62 (18). 1700990. ISSN 1613-4125 doi: http://doi.org/10.1002 / mnfr.201700990可在http://centaur获得.阅读.ac.uk/76654/

库马拉斯Bongoni & 路德Verkerk & Bea Steenbekkers & Matthijs德克 & Markus Stieger, Evaluation of Different Cooking Conditions on Broccoli (芸苔属植物oleracea var. italica) to Improve the Nutritional Value and Consumer 接受ance, Plant Foods Hum Nutr, link

艾米·克里斯汀·布朗,《了解食物:原则 & 准备, link, p.273

Michael E.J. 精益,福克斯 & 卡梅隆食品科学,营养 & 健康, link, p. 231

Jaime Prohens-Tomas, 费尔南多Nuez, 蔬菜我:菊科, 十字花科, Chenopodicaceae, 和葫芦科, p. 121, link

Sanchez-Machado, Dalia & Bueno-Solano,卡罗莱纳 & Nunez-Gastelum何塞•阿尔贝托。 & 雷耶斯莫雷诺,Cuauhtemoc & Lopez-Cervantes,詹姆. (2009). Biochemical composition and physicochemical properties of broccoli flours. 国际食品科学与营养杂志. 60 5 4. 163-73. 10.1080/09637480802702015., link

Scientific American, How good cooks keep green veggies from going brown, link

袁广发,孙波,袁杰,王启明. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli. J浙江大学学报. 2009;10(8):580-588. doi: 10.1631 / jzus.B0920051, link

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