玉米淀粉、马铃薯淀粉、小麦粉

Why and When to Use Potato Starch in Baking (Tested Cakes, Cookies & Brownies)

它不是最常见的烘焙原料,但却随处可见. You might have come across it if you’re into baking cookies or cakes of a Northern European origin. Or, if you’re looking for gluten-free alternatives. It’s also not uncommon to see it as an ingredient in egg replacers.

十大网赌排行榜在说什么? Potato starch. 在这篇文章中,十大网赌排行榜将深入探讨何时何地可以在烘焙中使用它!

什么是马铃薯淀粉?

After water, 它占土豆重量的80%以上, starch is the most prevalent ingredient in potatoes. Starch is the energy reserve for when the potato gets planted and needs to grow into a new plant. It sits in the potato cells, as small granules. 每个颗粒都含有大量的淀粉分子,紧密地排列在一起.

马铃薯淀粉粉是从马铃薯中提取马铃薯淀粉制成的. It can contain a few other minor ingredients that are naturally present in the potato and get extracted out as well, 但几乎100%都是淀粉.

淀粉是一种很大的碳水化合物分子,由葡萄糖分子的长链组成. 这些葡萄糖链有两种主要构型:支链淀粉和直链淀粉. How much is present of each of these depends on the potato variety as well as several other factors, 这对 土豆是如何烹饪的.

十大网赌软件马铃薯淀粉还有很多要学的. 十大网赌排行榜写了很多细节十大网赌软件它是如何制作的以及它是什么 土豆淀粉只贴.

raw potatoes
这些土豆富含淀粉!

马铃薯淀粉在烘焙中的作用

You can use potato starch in a lot of different applications. 特别是这个职位, we’ll stick to using it to make baked goods such as cookies, cakes, or brownies.

土豆淀粉有助于“把所有食物都粘在一起”

要制作烘焙好的饼干或蛋糕,你需要转化生的, 生面糊/生面团变成固体, 煮熟的产品. 由于一系列成分的共同作用,发生了相当多的转变, 每个都有自己的位置和作用. 你会在它们中发现一些最常见的成分:

  • 用水润湿/液体成分:增加水分和弹性(如.g. eggs, oat milk)
  • Fatty liquid or solid ingredients: to add richness and flavor (e.g. oils, butter, lard)
  • Sweetener: to sweeten the product, but possibly also to provide crunch or moistness and bulk (e.g. sugar, maple syrup)
  • Leavening agents: provide airiness and lightness (e.g. baking soda, yeast)
  • texturiser /“把它放在一起“: if you just mix together the ingredients above and bake them, you won’t get a product that actually holds itself together. Instead, you need some ingredients that do this. 这就是马铃薯淀粉的用武之地!

注意,在十大网赌排行榜的十大网赌排行榜中 科学的蛋糕 十大网赌排行榜将更详细地讨论所有这些单独成分的作用!

Thickening

看看马铃薯淀粉作为“维系一切”的成分的作用, we’ll have to look at those starch granules again. 当你把这些颗粒(也就是淀粉)和水混合并加热, the granules will start to absorb more and more of that water. As a result, 它们会膨胀,甚至会破裂, releasing all those individual starch molecules into the liquid. 这样就能吸收更多的水分. 通过吸收和留住水分,马铃薯淀粉使液体和面糊变稠.

Potato starch also contains high (compared to other starch types, it is still <0.1%)磷含量. 磷与淀粉相互作用,影响淀粉膨胀和变稠的方式. 一般来说, 与低磷量相比,高磷量导致低粘度的糊状物.

By holding onto that moisture once the starch is cooked, potato starch can also help to make a moist and tender baked good.

马铃薯淀粉颗粒较大,有利于增稠. However, it also increases the risk of a not so smooth texture (this is especially relevant when making custards and puddings) and clumpiness. 此外,马铃薯淀粉颗粒比e更脆弱.g. 玉米和小麦淀粉. 因此,颗粒更容易破碎. Too many broken granules can result in stringy and weak pastes.

蛋代用品成分

因为马铃薯淀粉能很好地结合水分, 同时还在做潮湿的食物, 你会经常发现土豆淀粉作为鸡蛋替代品粉的一种成分. 这些粉末(如十大网赌排行榜 测试蛋糕)在某些应用中可以取代鸡蛋. 它们通常是各种成分的混合,每种成分都有自己的作用. Potato starch by itself wouldn’t be able to replace egg. That is why manufactures blend it with other ingredients.

玉米淀粉、马铃薯淀粉、小麦粉
Left: wheat flour ; Middle: potato starch ; Right: corn starch

无网络构建谷蛋白

Potato starch will thicken a liquid and form a ‘gel’, this is similar to the role of starch in wheat when baking. 然而,小麦粉,一种最常见的烘焙原料,也含有 gluten. Gluten are proteins that are very good at forming a large network. This network can then hold onto gas bubbles which is essential when baking a yeast-risen bread. Potato starch doesn’t have this more ‘advanced’ capability

Newsletter

Want to be updated on new food science articles? 订阅十大网赌排行榜的每周通讯

玉米淀粉、马铃薯淀粉、小麦粉

不同的作物提供不同的淀粉

土豆并不是唯一一种含有大量淀粉的农产品. Rice, wheat, cassava, corn, and many more all contain starch. These starches are broken down in our body to supply us with glucose, 是十大网赌排行榜身体的重要能量来源.

Starches from different crops, have different properties and won’t behave the exact same way. We’ve discussed some of that when looking at using 淀粉作为增稠剂. That said, 如果你没有一种类型, you can always try to replace it with another starch (with a few exceptions) and see whether it works. 它可能会给出一个稍微不同的结果, but still get pretty close since they are all based on that mix of amylose and amylopectin molecules.

马铃薯淀粉和. Corn Starch & Wheat Flour

When looking at how and when potato starch works, 十大网赌排行榜必须将马铃薯淀粉与同类原料进行比较. No use to compare potato starch with a sweetener or fat, we already know they have two very different roles!

As such, we’re focusing on comparing potato starch with other ingredients commonly used for a similar purpose: corn starch and wheat flour. 玉米淀粉与马铃薯淀粉最为相似. It’s also a starch, but made from corn instead of potato. 小麦粉略有不同,它是磨碎的小麦,但不是纯淀粉. 除了淀粉,它还含有麸质蛋白质和各种其他碳水化合物.

We compared potato starch with corn starch and wheat flour (a low gluten/cake flour variety) in three different applications: brownies, cake, and cookies. For each, we kept the overall quantity of ‘flour’ the same (we’re calling the starches flours as well for simplicity’s sake), 只是把其中一个换成另一个. You can find the recipes we used at the bottom of this post.

土豆粉怎么样?

Potato flour is different to potato starch seeing as how it contains all ingredients (except for the moisture) of a potato. 其他的蛋白质,脂肪等. in the flour make potato flour quite different from starch, also, 它会有更多的土豆味. Since potato starch is more commonly used as a wheat flour/corn starch replacer we decided to focus on those.

Brownies

第一:巧克力蛋糕. In our brownie recipe less than 15w% was made of starch/flour. Instead, 十大网赌排行榜假设鸡蛋, which make up >20w% of the recipe take over a lot of the structuring roles. The role of the flour or starch would be smaller (though not completely insignificant of course). 这可能会使改变面粉类型的影响不那么显著.

The samples

十大网赌排行榜做了三个布朗尼蛋糕,除了里面含有淀粉和面粉外,其他都是一样的:

  1. Potato starch
  2. Corn starch
  3. Wheat flour
Findings

布朗尼的击球手看起来几乎一模一样. There was no way to distinguish the different recipes. Once baked, the three brownies were again very similar. 如果有什么区别的话,那就是玉米淀粉的版本比其他两种更湿润. That said, that one was baked in between the other two (a bit of an experimental design error) so that might well have been the cause. Also, we expect that different ‘flours’ might have had slightly different optimal baking times. As such, 如果你对每一个都进行微调, 十大网赌排行榜认为你会得到三个非常好的布朗尼蛋糕,很难区分!

Overall though, all three made a well cooked brownie.

Cake

接下来,蛋糕. 十大网赌排行榜做了各种各样的巧克力小蛋糕. Flour/starch plays a bigger role in these cupcakes than it did in the brownie (makes up >25%). As such, we were a little more cautious in replacing the wheat flour the recipe called for. We only replaced half of that with either potato or corn starch.

Findings

这一次,十大网赌排行榜可以看到一些明显的不同. The 100%的小麦面粉 batter was clearly thicker than the other two, which were still very similar. 所有的纸杯蛋糕都是在同一个烤箱的同一个烤架上烤的,中途还要旋转. Nevertheless, we saw some clear differences in baking behavior. 土豆淀粉纸杯蛋糕烤得更快. 当十大网赌排行榜把它们从烤箱里拿出来的时候,马铃薯淀粉已经完全煮熟了, whereas in hindsight the other two were still slightly underdone. They collapsed a little (as you can see in the photo).

That said, you could optimize the baking times for each and create very similar tasting cupcakes. The differences in flavor and final texture were minor. Of course, 只有一半的面粉被淀粉代替了, 这就是为什么要进行下一次测试, cookies, 十大网赌排行榜决定全力以赴!

用土豆淀粉做饼干

荷兰有一种酥饼,叫做"沙饼". 这些饼干应该是有“沙子”的,很容易分解. 看看马铃薯淀粉的表现, we decided those cookies would be a perfect testing ground for potato starch vs wheat flour. 十大网赌排行榜做了四种不同的饼干,每一种都用了等量的黄油和糖. The last ingredient was (a mix of) starches a/o flour:

  • 100%的小麦面粉
  • 马铃薯淀粉100%
  • 50%小麦粉+ 50%马铃薯淀粉
  • 50%小麦粉+ 50%玉米淀粉
四种不同的曲奇面糊
The cookie dough made with just potato starch was a lot wetter and stickier than the others. 100%的小麦粉面团显然是所有面团中最干最硬的.
Findings

这些饼干非常简单,只有三到四种配料, of which the starch/flour made up more than half the overall recipe, 十大网赌排行榜希望看到一些效果. 事实确实如此! The raw doughs were noticeably different (see photo above). 不含小麦粉的面团很湿很粘. 而只含小麦粉的面团则表现出相反的效果, 这是最干燥、最坚硬的地方.

After baking, the differences were even more apparent. The 马铃薯淀粉100% cookies were very, very fragile. You could barely pick them up for fear of them falling apart. They had also spread most on the baking tray and had barely browned. 而100%由小麦粉制成的饼干则相反. 他们分散得最少, were driest to eat (so clearly has a higher water-binding capacity) and were the brownest of the bunch (probably due to the presence of sugars and protein in the flour).

The 50% corn starch and 50% potato starch fell somewhere in between on all these parameters. Interestingly, these were both most ‘sandy’, but in a positive way. So would be good candidates for a ‘sand cookie’.

What was interesting is that the corn starch cookie was the only ‘wrinkly’ cookie in the bunch. 这往往发生在甜点,当面团足够软,可以稍微膨胀, 但不够软,无法完全展开. Cookies like this always expand a little because of the moisture in the butter that evaporates and the fat which melts (making the dough softer). 形成的气体向外推. Decreasing the wheat flour content might result in a similar effect.

4 different cookies with different potato starch content

附注:马铃薯淀粉可以改性

These tests were all done with standard store-bought potato starch. 大多数商店只出售一种马铃薯淀粉:普通的、未变性的马铃薯淀粉. 这是一种简单地从土豆中提取的淀粉,没有经过进一步的加工. 然而,食品制造商很可能会使用改性马铃薯淀粉. This is potato starch that has been modified, e.g. by extra heating or chemical reactions to change how it behaves. 这些改性是为了改善马铃薯淀粉的一个或几个方面. For instance, the modification can change the viscosity of the gel that is formed or it can improve the heat resistance.

当测试马铃薯淀粉时,请记住这一点. 如果您正在测试大规模应用程序, contact your supplier on the type of potato starch they’d recommend. 如果你在家测试, keep in mind that what might work in a product you’ve bought, doesn’t translate directly to a kitchen application.

马铃薯淀粉烘烤的研究结论

Potato starch is a dry ingredient that you can use in baking to help provide thickness and structure to the product. In the cookies, cake, 十大网赌排行榜还测试了布朗尼, 它的性能与玉米淀粉相似, however, 它的纹理更沙质一些. Potato starch can replace wheat flour in instances where the role of flour to hold it all together isn’t too big. However, potato starch doesn’t bind a dough or batter together as well and so in some instances (e.g. 饼干)可能需要一些小麦粉的帮助来保持它们都在一起.

无谷蛋白布朗尼🙂

不经意间,十大网赌排行榜发现了一个很棒的无麸质布朗尼食谱. Potato starch is free from gluten (unless processed on a line with gluten) and so using potato starch instead of wheat flour gives you a gluten-free brownie! 十大网赌排行榜还没有用十大网赌排行榜黑豆布朗尼 or our cakey & 感伤的布朗尼, but think there’s a decent chance they’ll come out good!

分享你的土豆淀粉用量!

Now that you know why and when you can use potato starch in baking, we’d love to hear how you use potato starch in your baking (or even in non-baking applications)! 在某些特定的例子中,它运行得很好(或很糟糕)吗?? 十大网赌排行榜很乐意听,这样十大网赌排行榜就能在此基础上进一步发展.

布朗尼实验——三种不同的面粉

马铃薯淀粉布朗尼

Prep Time: 10 minutes
Cook Time: 35 minutes 25 seconds
Total Time: 45 minutes 25 seconds

这些布朗尼蛋糕已经用马铃薯淀粉、玉米淀粉和普通小麦粉做过测试. The differences between the three flours were small (though corn starch turned out a little more moist than the others), so we concluded you can use all three of them interchangeably.

基本配方来自 OU Kosher,修改后制成本实验.

Ingredients

  • 4 eggs
  • 310g sugar
  • 60克可可粉
  • 125克油(十大网赌排行榜用葵花籽油)
  • 60克无糖椰子片
  • 120g potato starch OR corn starch OR wheat flour

Instructions

  1. 把所有的食材放在一个碗里混合(就这么简单).
  2. 取一个尺寸为22x22cm(或9x9英寸)的方形烤盘,铺上烤盘纸. 倒入现准备好的面糊.
  3. Bake in a pre-heated oven at 180C (350F) for 25-40 minutes, 直到牙签拔出来的时候是干净的,或者有一点点污渍. You don't want to overbake the brownie or it will turn dry. 你的烘焙时间取决于你的烤箱和你想要多熟. Also, keep in mind that using a larger tray will decrease baking time, 小一点的会增加烘焙时间.

Notes

Science Tip:

If you want to experiment with the recipe and compare 'flours' (we'll use flour to refer to both starches and flours here) as well it's easiest to mix all ingredients together except for the flour (so mix the eggs, sugar, cocoa, oil, and coconut). This will weigh about 750g (check your own weight).

如果你想比较这三种"面粉", split the batter into three portions (each weighing 245g, keep in mind that you'll lose a little batter along the way). 在每一批次中加入40g不同的“面粉”,形成三种类型.

Of course, you can also compare more or less different types. Simply split the batter in as many types you'd like to compare and adjust the weight of the 'flour' accordingly.

Cakey vs. Gooey brownies

十大网赌排行榜做了一系列单独的实验 cakey vs. 感伤的布朗尼 if you'd like to learn more about just how to tweak your brownie for your ideal consistency!

Cake Recipe

3蛋糕品种
Ingredients
  • 4 eggs
  • 250克黄油或人造黄油
  • 250g sugar
  • pinch of salt
  • 45ml milk
  • 10g可可粉(可选)
  • 10ml咖啡酒(可选)
  • 蛋糕粉150克
  • 1茶匙泡打粉
  • 150g X (potato starch OR corn starch OR cake flour)
Directions
  • Mix all ingredients together in a firm dough (this is easier if you’ve let the butter come to room temperature)
  • Split the dough into 8-10 balls of dough, flattening them slightly.
  • Bake in a pre-heated oven at 180C for 20 minutes. 饼干的颜色还是有点淡.

Cookie Recipe

4 different cookies with different potato starch content
Ingredients
  • 125g butter
  • 40克糖粉
  • 200g X
    1. X = 60%马铃薯淀粉+ 40%低粉
    2. X = 60%玉米淀粉+ 40%低粉
    3. X = 100%蛋糕粉
    4. X = 100%马铃薯淀粉
Directions
  • Mix all ingredients together in a firm dough (this is easier if you’ve let the butter come to room temperature)
  • Split the dough into 8-10 balls of dough, flattening them slightly.
  • Bake in a pre-heated oven at 180C for 20 minutes. 饼干的颜色还是有点淡.

References

Jaspreet Singh, Lovedeep Kaur, 马铃薯化学与技术进展, Academic Press, 2009, Chapter 10, link

新闻更新

请在下方输入您的电子邮件地址以订阅十大网赌排行榜的每周通讯

2 Comments

Leave a Reply

你的电邮地址不会被公布.

本网站使用Akismet来减少垃圾邮件. 了解如何处理您的评论数据.

Skip to Recipe